Educational Challenges https://educationalchallenges.org.ua/index.php/education_challenges <h2 style="direction: ltr;">EDUCATIONAL CHALLENGES</h2> <div id="content"> <div id="journalDescription"> <p><strong>e-ISSN </strong><a href="https://portal.issn.org/resource/ISSN-L/2709-7986">2709-7986</a><strong> (</strong><strong>Online)<br /></strong><span style="font-weight: bolder;"><strong>***</strong><br /></span> The Journal was founded in 1996<em>.<br /></em>The previous title <em>"<a href="http://journals.hnpu.edu.ua/index.php/pedagogy">Pedagogy and Psychology</a>"</em> [Pedahohika ta psykholohiia]. <br /><strong>ISSN </strong><a href="http://portal.issn.org/resource/ISSN/2312-2471" target="blank_">2312-2471</a><strong> (Print), ISSN </strong><a href="http://portal.issn.org/resource/ISSN/2313-2361" target="blank_">2313-2361</a><strong> (Online)</strong>.<br />Archives of issues up to 2017 are <a href="http://www.irbis-nbuv.gov.ua/cgi-bin/irbis_nbuv/cgiirbis_64.exe?Z21ID=&amp;I21DBN=UJRN&amp;P21DBN=UJRN&amp;S21STN=1&amp;S21REF=10&amp;S21FMT=juu_all&amp;C21COM=S&amp;S21CNR=20&amp;S21P01=0&amp;S21P02=0&amp;S21P03=PREF=&amp;S21COLORTERMS=0&amp;S21STR=znpkhnpu_ped" target="_blank" rel="noopener">HERE</a> &amp; <a href="http://oaji.net/journal-archive-issues.html?number=1054" target="_blank" rel="noopener">HERE</a>.<br />Archive of issues after 2017 is <a href="http://journals.hnpu.edu.ua/index.php/pedagogy/issue/archive" target="_blank" rel="noopener">HERE</a>.<br /><strong>***</strong><br /><strong>In 2020 the title is changed to <em>“EDUCATIONAL CHALLENGES”</em> (e-ISSN </strong><a href="https://portal.issn.org/resource/ISSN-L/2709-7986">2709-7986</a><strong>).</strong><br />***<br />The edition is included in the<em><strong> List of Scientific Professional Publications of Ukraine (category B / категорія Б)</strong></em> based on the <em><a href="https://mon.gov.ua/ua/npa/pro-zatverdzhennya-rishen-atestacijnoyi-kolegiyi-ministerstva-vid-30-listopada-2021-roku">Order of the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine № 1290</a></em> dated 30.11.2021 (Annex 3) in the field of educational sciences.<br />***<br /><strong>Aims and scope.</strong> <em>“Educational Challenges” Journal publishes peer-reviewed </em><em>original research and review articles across all aspects of up-to-date education. The </em><em>journal publishes manuscripts in the following basic areas:<br /></em></p> <p><strong>• Educational policies: </strong><em>Educational technology; Challenges, trends and good practices in contemporary education at preschool, school, university, and postgraduate level; Learning and teaching; Paradigms of contemporary education; Quality assurance in education; Reform, change, and innovation in education; Formal, non-formal and informal education in the context of contemporary educational policies and practices.<br /></em></p> <p><em><strong>• </strong></em><strong>Initial and Continuing Teacher Training: </strong><em>Teacher education; Mentoring and Coaching in Teacher Training; Teaching career; Training trainers; School learning; Experiential learning.</em></p> <p><strong>• Experimental education: </strong><em>Testing and evaluation; Practice of education; Practice of training; Educational research.</em></p> <p><em><strong>• </strong></em><strong>E-Learning and Software in Education: </strong><em>Distance learning; e-Learning technologies; </em><em>Projects and e-Learning experiences; e-Tutoring &amp; Mentoring; e-Learning for sustainable development.</em></p> <p><strong>• Specialized education: </strong><em>Research of humanitarian disciplines; The new education;</em><em> Psychology of education.<br /></em></p> <p><em><strong>• </strong></em><strong>Foreign Language Teaching and Learning: </strong><em>Research and practice of teaching different languages; Research and best practices in methods of teaching English; Teaching English for Specific Purposes; Teaching English for Academic Purposes.</em></p> <p><em>***</em></p> <p><strong>Journal Indexing and Metrics: </strong><em><a href="https://journals.indexcopernicus.com/search/details?id=68949&amp;lang=en" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Index Copernicus</a>,</em> <em><a href="https://portal.issn.org/resource/ISSN/2709-7986" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ROAD (the Directory of Open Access Scholarly Resources)</a></em>, <em><a href="https://scholar.google.com/citations?user=9OH0xFMAAAAJ&amp;hl=ru" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Scholar</a>, <a href="https://ouci.dntb.gov.ua/editions/G09pR8jP/">Open Ukrainian Citation Index (OUCI)</a>, <a href="https://explore.openaire.eu/search/dataprovider?datasourceId=issn__online::65df716caa13ce537e943a25e5157c30">OpenAIRE</a>, <a href="https://www.scilit.net/journal/6109980">Scilit</a>, <a href="https://search.crossref.org/?q=2709-7986&amp;from_ui=yes">Crossref</a>, in the process...</em></p> <p><strong>Founder:</strong> <em><a href="http://hnpu.edu.ua/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">H.S. Skovoroda Kharkiv National Pedagogical University</a>.<br /></em></p> <p><strong>Responsible for publication: <a href="http://hnpu.edu.ua/en/kostikova-ilona-ivanivna" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><em>Ilona Kostikova</em></a>, </strong><em>Doctor of Science (Education), PhD in Education, PhD in Philology, Full Professor, Head of Department of Theory and Practice of the English Language, H. S. Skovoroda Kharkiv National Pedagogical University.<br /></em></p> <p><strong>Frequency</strong>: <em>twice a year (April &amp; October).</em></p> <p><strong>Languages: </strong><em><span lang="EN-US">English.<br /></span></em></p> <p><strong><span lang="EN-US">Author Fees: </span></strong><span lang="EN-US"><em>There are no fees for submitting and publishing articles to the journal.</em></span></p> <p><span lang="EN-US"><strong>Editor-in-Chief: <a href="http://hnpu.edu.ua/en/kostikova-ilona-ivanivna" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><em>Ilona Kostikova</em></a></strong><em><strong>,</strong> Doctor of Science (Education), PhD in Education, PhD in Philology, Full Professor, Head of Department of Theory and Practice of the English Language, H. S. Skovoroda Kharkiv National Pedagogical University, Ukraine.<br /></em></span><span lang="EN-US"><strong>Deputy Editor: </strong></span><strong><em>Emerson Abraham JACKSON</em>, </strong><em>PhD. Scholar, Research Scholar, Centre of West African Studies, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom.</em></p> <p><em>The <a href="http://educationalchallenges.org.ua/index.php/education_challenges/about/editorialTeam"><strong>editorial team</strong></a> includes </em><em>prominent </em><em>foreign scholars from <strong>Argentina,</strong> </em><em><strong>Canada, Colombia, Greece, Italy, Peru, Romania, Slovakia, </strong>and </em><em><span style="font-weight: bolder;">the UK</span></em><em><strong>.</strong></em></p> <p><strong>Editorial office address</strong><strong>: </strong><em>61168, Kharkiv, 2 Valentynivska Str., room 227-A.<br /></em><strong>E-mail: </strong><em><a href="mailto:educationalchallengesjournal@gmail.com">educationalchallengesjournal@gmail.com</a></em></p> </div> <div><strong>***</strong></div> <div><strong>All articles have </strong><em>DOI (digital object identifier)</em><strong><br />All authors have </strong><a href="https://orcid.org/"><em>ORCID</em></a></div> <div><strong>***</strong></div> <div><strong><a href="http://educationalchallenges.org.ua/index.php/education_challenges/open-access">Open-access Statement</a>:</strong> <em><strong>Educational Challenges</strong></em> provides immediate <strong>open access</strong> to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.</div> <div>Full-text access to scientific articles of the journal is presented on the official website in the <strong><a href="http://educationalchallenges.org.ua/index.php/education_challenges/issue/archive" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Archives</a></strong> (<a href="http://educationalchallenges.org.ua/index.php/education_challenges/open-access">see more</a>).</div> <div> </div> <div><img src="https://licensebuttons.net/l/by/3.0/88x31.png" /> Published by the <em><a href="http://hnpu.edu.ua/uk" target="_blank" rel="noopener">H.S. Skovoroda Kharkiv National Pedagogical University</a></em> (Ukraine) under the terms of the <em><a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons CC-BY 4.0</a></em> license (<a href="http://educationalchallenges.org.ua/index.php/education_challenges/open-access">see more</a>).</div> <div><img src="https://rsglobal.pl/public/site/images/rsglobal/open.png" /></div> </div> H.S. Skovoroda Kharkiv National University en-US Educational Challenges 2709-7986 To the Readers, Colleagues, Friends! https://educationalchallenges.org.ua/index.php/education_challenges/article/view/79 <p><strong>DEAR READERS, COLLEAGUES, FRIENDS!</strong></p> <p><strong>24 February 2022, </strong>at 5 a.m. the military Russians from Belgorod bombed the sleeping civilian Ukrainians in Kharkiv. The war has started. That day I woke up in Kharkiv, my city, and for the nearest many days, I had been slept just for several hours. I did not go anywhere from Kharkiv though I could go to any safe place in the country or even abroad to different countries that invited me, I didn’t, and I will not. Because it is my city, it is my country! And I’ll stay here to help my city, up to the war end, up to the Ukrainian victory! Glory to Ukraine!</p> <p>The issue articles were collected before the war. They are about peaceful teaching and learning, and different educational aspects. I got great supporting words and prayers from the journal editorial team, journal authors, and colleagues all over the world. While sitting under the Russian bombs they saved us.</p> <p>THANK YOU!</p> Ilona Kostikova Copyright (c) 2022 Ilona Kostikova https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-04-04 2022-04-04 27 1 6 11 Analysis of Basic Education Concepts in Ukraine and Canada (in the Field “Advertising and Public Relations”) https://educationalchallenges.org.ua/index.php/education_challenges/article/view/81 <p><em>The <strong>aim</strong> of the article is to conduct a comparative analysis of basic research concepts in the Ukrainian and Canadian scientific space related to the concepts that characterize the general context of professional training, in particular in the field of advertising and public relations.</em></p> <p><em>The research <strong>methodology</strong> is based on general scientific and terminological methods, the comparative method.</em></p> <p><em>As a <strong>result</strong>, the comparison of the basic research concepts in the Ukrainian and Canadian scientific space are considered, namely, education, professional education, vocational education, continuing education, lifelong learning, competence, profession, trade, professional training, professional competence, advertising education, integral competence of a specialist in advertising and public relations, general competencies of a specialist in advertising and public relations, etc.</em> <em>The results of the research, first of all, can be used in systematization of the accumulated scientific knowledge in the field, synthesis and generalization of scientific achievements of the field, ensuring the successful application of scientific achievements in practice.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>. The comparative analysis of basic research concepts in Ukraine and Canada that characterize the general context of professional training, in particular, in the field of advertising and public relations is done. The experience can be taken into account when reforming education in Ukraine and Canada.</em></p> Halyna Bryukhanova Copyright (c) 2022 Halyna Bryukhanova https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-04-04 2022-04-04 27 1 47 56 10.34142/2709-7986.2022.27.1.04 Academic Integrity in the Context of European Experience and Ukrainian Practice https://educationalchallenges.org.ua/index.php/education_challenges/article/view/82 <p><em>The article analyses the experience of European countries in counteraction to academic dishonesty and plagiarism, as well as the attitude of Ukrainian students to the problem. The specific examples of the counteraction against academic fraud in universities abroad have been studied, in particular, in the United Kingdom at the University College London, in Sweden at the Karolinska Medical University, and in higher education institutions in Poland. The article examines the attitude of Ukrainian students to various issues of academic integrity by questionnaires for its development in higher education institutions to prevent plagiarism in Master's theses.</em></p> <p><strong><em>The purpose </em></strong><em>of the research is to study the European experience in counteraction to the manifestations of academic dishonesty and plagiarism among students to apply the experience in Ukrainian higher education institutions.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methodology.</em></strong><em> A survey among Master's students in H.S. Skovoroda Kharkiv National Pedagogical University was conducted, which revealed the level of students’ knowledge about such concepts as academic integrity, plagiarism, as well as its types and reasons that motivate students to academic dishonesty and plagiarism.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results.</em></strong><em> The results of the survey show that, unfortunately, most students do not consider plagiarism a fraud. According to them, posting a text on the Internet makes it common and accessible to all, “nobody's”, and academic dishonesty and plagiarism in the student environment by majority of students is still perceived as the norm.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions.</em></strong><em> To develop the academic integrity for Ukrainian students, it is necessary to implement a set of various measures. Promoting academic integrity and counteraction to plagiarism should take place at the level of the national ministry, higher education institutions, University faculties, departments, teaching staff, and the students themselves. Such work must be systematic, have a strategy, technology, ways of implementation at all levels of the scientific and educational process. It is expedient to conduct mass, explanatory, preventive work in each university, instill in Ukrainian students the principles of academic integrity, conduct special lessons to prevent plagiarism, work with common electronic programs of text self-checking, and teach training modules.</em></p> Anastasiia Dorozhko Copyright (c) 2022 Anastasiia Dorozhko https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-04-04 2022-04-04 27 1 57 66 10.34142/2709-7986.2022.27.1.05 Inclusive Education Implementation: the Experience of the Faculty of Primary Education https://educationalchallenges.org.ua/index.php/education_challenges/article/view/83 <p><em>Considering the current reality, there are new requirements for the organization of the educational process in higher education institutions of Ukraine. Thus, the problems and ways of the implementation of inclusive education for students with special educational needs are becoming increasingly important.</em></p> <p><em>The<strong> purpose </strong>of the study is to substantiate theoretically the problems and ways of implementing inclusive education in Ukraine based on the experience of the Faculty of Primary Education of H.&nbsp;S. Skovoroda Kharkiv National Pedagogical University.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methodology.</em></strong><em> A retrospective analysis of the development of inclusive higher education in Ukraine has been used; it has been found that it is necessary to organize an inclusive environment and implement training for students with special educational needs in higher education institutions. The study was based on the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine of July 10, 2019 № 635 “On approval of the Procedure for the organization of inclusive education in higher education institutions”, educational programs on 013 Primary Education, and scientific and pedagogical works on conceptual approaches to the implementation of inclusive education; organization of training of persons with special educational needs; principles and functions of inclusive education, which indicated the need for inclusive education in higher education institutions.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results.</em></strong><em> The essence of the concept "inclusive education" has been defined. Problems of higher education of people with special needs have been described. The system of education of students with special needs has been determined. It is noted that art HUB for students and university teachers with special educational needs in H.&nbsp;S. Skovoroda Kharkiv National Pedagogical University has been opened. It has been determined that there are elective subjects “Fundamentals of inclusive education” (for the 3<sup>rd</sup> year students) and “Features of working with an inclusive child” (for the 4<sup>th</sup> year students) in the educational program “Primary Education” at the Faculty of Primary Education of H.&nbsp;S. Skovoroda Kharkiv National Pedagogical University. The educational program "Primary education with methods of special education" for applicants for the first (bachelor's) level of higher education has been described. The examples of students’ working with an inclusive child are described.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions.</em></strong><em> The process of successful integration of people with special needs in a higher education institution requires a systematic solution of many tasks. Creating an environment accessible to people with special needs is becoming an unconditional requirement for the development of higher education institutions and significantly affects the competitiveness of a modern IHE.</em></p> Tetiana Dovzhenko Copyright (c) 2022 Tetiana Dovzhenko https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-04-04 2022-04-04 27 1 67 79 10.34142/2709-7986.2022.27.1.06 Scientific and Pedagogical Support for Future Primary School Teachers during Teaching Practice https://educationalchallenges.org.ua/index.php/education_challenges/article/view/84 <p><em>Considering the current reality, when the state needs highly qualified and creative specialists, the problem of scientific and pedagogical support for future primary school teachers’ professional growth during teaching practice is becoming increasingly important.</em></p> <p><em>The<strong> purpose </strong>of the research is to substantiate theoretically the scientific and pedagogical support for future primary school teachers’ professional growth during teaching practice.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methodology.</em></strong> <em>A retrospective analysis of the process of future primary school teachers’ professional growth has been used. We have found that the process of professional growth becomes more effective if certain pedagogical conditions of students’ teaching practice are created and implemented. They facilitate the development of future specialists’ desire and readiness for faithful implementation of their professional duties, professional competence and important personal qualities development, the ability to self-educate, etc. </em><em>The basis for </em><em>our research</em><em> was</em> <em>scientific and pedagogical studies relevant to future primary school teachers’ professional growth during teaching practice. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Results.</em></strong><em> The essence of the concepts “scientific and pedagogical support”, “professional potential” has been defined. </em><em>The main tasks of future teachers</em><em>’ preparation</em><em> for future pedagogical activity with orientation on their professional growth </em><em>as well as professional potential </em><em>components and the factors </em><em>having an impact on their</em><em> formation and realization </em><em>have been characterized. </em><em>It has been determined that teaching practice creates ample opportunities for future teachers’ personal abilities purposeful development, the desire for creativity through their systematic involvement in the various activities of a modern primary school teacher.</em></p> <p><em>The directions in which scientific and pedagogical support for future primary school teachers is implemented during the experimental teaching practice “A Day at School” have been stated.</em> <em>It has been defined that the system of creative scientific and pedagogical support for future teachers’ practical training deals with an introduction to pedagogical activities, adaptation to the professional skill requirements since the 1st year of study, professional self-realization, and pedagogical credo approval in the final year of study.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions.</em></strong><em> Future primary school teachers’ scientific and pedagogical support during teaching practice deals with preparation for practical pedagogical activities, providing scientific and methodological assistance (both University and school teachers). Teaching practice ensures future specialists deepen and expand professional knowledge and skills, revealing their professional potential and facilitating professional growth in general.</em></p> Iryna Nebytova Copyright (c) 2022 Iryna Nebytova https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-04-04 2022-04-04 27 1 80 91 10.34142/2709-7986.2022.27.1.07 The Impact of International Students’ Social Adaptation on the Training Process in Higher Education https://educationalchallenges.org.ua/index.php/education_challenges/article/view/85 <p><em>The article deals with the impact of international students’ social adaptation on the training process in higher educational institution. The article <strong>aims</strong> to highlight and analyze </em><em>the main aspects of international students’ social adaptation as one of the effective factors</em><em> that impact the quality of training. </em><em>The tasks of the article are </em><em>to study and characterize the features of the process of international students’ social adaptation (phases, types, components); to analyze challenges of social adaptation that international students meet; to introduce ways to overcome </em><em>the problems of</em> <em>international students’</em><em> social adaptation in higher education.</em></p> <p><em>General theoretical research <strong>methods </strong>(</em><em>analysis, synthesis, system-structural)</em><em> have been used to reach the research purpose. </em></p> <p><em>The<strong> result</strong> as follows: </em><em>the international students’ social adaptation is a continuous process of adaptation to new conditions in training, cultural and social environment. That is, as a process in which a student adapts to different activities (learning, scientific, etc.), acquires knowledge and skills, adapts to a new way of life in society (living conditions), adopts cultural norms, values, and interacts with the social environment, develops communicative abilities (language, communication). A number of challenges (psychological, training, socio-cultural) that international students meet were identified. Effective ways such as a proper organization of training process and individual work; expanding friendly contacts with local students; social-pedagogical support; were proposed to overcome international students’ social adaptation challenges. </em><em>&nbsp;</em></p> <p><em>W</em><em>e have <strong>concluded</strong> that the sufficient international students’ social adaptation has as a positive impact on the academic process as on students’ mental and physical state.</em></p> Liudmyla Pikulytska Copyright (c) 2022 Liudmyla Pikulytska https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-04-04 2022-04-04 27 1 92 107 10.34142/2709-7986.2022.27.1.08 Practices and their Challenges in an English Teaching Project of a Brazilian State University during the Pandemic https://educationalchallenges.org.ua/index.php/education_challenges/article/view/63 <p><em>The <strong>aim</strong> of this manuscript is to present, analyze and discuss the practices developed in a Teacher Education project called Residência Pedagógica (Pedagogical Residency) - a project that the Brazilian government offers to Brazilian universities - and their challenges during the pandemic. More specifically, it intends to focus on the practical phase of the first module of the project, which was when the project-participants observed classes in the school, designed lesson plans for the groups of whose classes they observed and implemented the lessons for these groups.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methodology</em></strong><em>. Qualitative research method was adopted in this study. The reports, lesson plans and video lessons of the project's participants were used as data in order to analyze their practices under the light of theoretical discussion held during the project. A reflexive diary kept by me was also used as data. Moreover, the participants’ practices were contrasted with situations that occurred in the pandemic context.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results</em></strong><em>. The project practical phases did not occur as foreseen; however, the participants were able to reflect upon their practices based on the theoretical discussion carried out previously in the project. They recognized the language learning and teaching perspectives in the lessons they observed and, in the lesson, plans they designed and implemented. The pandemic had a great interference in the project, which had to be adapted, so that the first module could be concluded.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>. In spite of the pandemic, we managed to reach the project’s main objective, which was to provide space for college students, who shall graduate as English teachers, to have contact with the school environment. </em></p> André Luís Specht Copyright (c) 2022 André Luís Specht https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-04-04 2022-04-04 27 1 23 33 10.34142/2709-7986.2022.27.1.02 A New Challenge: The Reconstruction of Online Language Laboratory on Distance Learning https://educationalchallenges.org.ua/index.php/education_challenges/article/view/78 <p>The Covid-19 wide spread constrained numerous schools and colleges to stay closed briefly. This phenomenon brings a challeging in teaching learning process. The aim of this paper is to explain the learning process using new language laboratory format. There can be several formats of online learning process: Knowledge base, online support, asynchronous training, synchronous training, and hybrid training. This study employed a descriptive design with a qualitative approach to examine the language laboratory strategis and challenges through the pandemic in the University. A questionnaire and interview were used in this study to elicit the responses of English Lecturer in Language Center, Sebelas Maret University. The findings reveal that the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has reformed the Language Laboratory significantly. Both lecturers and students in are faced with multiple challenges in conducting teaching and learning process. In other hand, the new format and content of Online language laboratory helps teachers and students in teaching learning process. Covid-9 also opens an opportunity to reconstruct the teaching learning system in laboratory and establish updated programs and assessments.</p> Tatas Transinata Copyright (c) 2022 Tatas Transinata https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-04-04 2022-04-04 27 1 34 46 10.34142/2709-7986.2022.27.1.03 Modernising the Education System to Confront Realities of 21st Century Digital Space in Sierra Leone: a Practical Discourse https://educationalchallenges.org.ua/index.php/education_challenges/article/view/80 <p><em>The article has provided an opportunity for critical discourses geared towards the modernisation of education in Sierra Leone to confront the realities of digital transformation in the 21st century. </em></p> <p><em>The <strong>purpose</strong> of the study is carved towards the achievement of addressing three objectives, which include the assessment of technology provision and gaps in the country, and proffering recommendations geared towards edging the country’s hope of making realistic growth prospects that is comparable to its counterparts in the Sub-Saharan African region.</em></p> <p><em>The <strong>methodology</strong> incorporates discursive analysis of existing technologies that will enable the country to make the right level of progress towards facilitating growth and development.</em></p> <p><em>The <strong>result</strong> unearthed gaps in provision, which is not so much about casting blame, but the need to ensure resources are pulled to address the scope for economic progression across all sectors, while at the same time adding value to the human resource skillset. </em></p> <p><em>The <strong>conclusion</strong> shows that resources should be pulled to make sure the system is ready to leap in a bid to embracing advances in technology modernisation needed to achieve sustained level of growth in the economy.</em></p> Emerson Abraham Jackson Copyright (c) 2022 Emerson Abraham Jackson https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-04-04 2022-04-04 27 1 12 22 10.34142/2709-7986.2022.27.1.01